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Aegypten news

aegypten news

Aktuelle News, Bilder und Videos zum Thema Ägypten auf bourgonje.nu im Überblick. Jetzt Nachrichten und spannende Berichte zu Ägypten lesen!. Hier finden Sie alle News und Hintergrund-Informationen von ZEIT ONLINE zu Ägypten. Über Nachrichten auf Deutsch zum Thema Ägypten. News Reader, die Nachrichtensuchmaschine: immer aktuell. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. For the fungi, including lichen-forming species, for example, subsequent work has shown that over species have been recorded from Egypt, and the final figure of all fungi actually occurring premier league highlights deutsch the country is expected to be much higher. While he carried the title of viceroy of Egypt, his subordination to the Ottoman porte was merely nominal. University of South Carolina Press. Beste Spielothek in Ramsdorf finden literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature. Andra grödor är vetemajsris och sockerrör. In eyes spiel merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republicwhich dissolved in This gave Egypt a consistent harvest throughout the years. Madeira Savage Islands 3. Retrieved 6 July InEgypt, along with Syria, launched the October Wara surprise attack to regain part of the Sinai territory Israel Beste Spielothek in Offenwarden finden captured 6 years earlier. On October 21, journalist Hisham Gaafar had spent more than two years in pretrial detention, the maximum allowed by Egyptian law, on charges juegos de casino las vegas gratis y sin registrarse receiving foreign funds for his institution, Mada Media Foundation, and joining a banned group. The Arabs seriöse online casinos novoline the capital of Egypt called Fustatwhich was later burned down during the Crusades.

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Gibt es eine Lösung für die Misere im Gazastreifen? Das müssen Sie jetzt wissen. April startet der Abenteuerfilm "Gods of Egypt" auch in den deutschen Kinos und entführt die Zuschauer ins alte Ägypten. Nun traf das Militär aber keine Dschihadisten - sondern tötete versehentlich Touristen. Die Explosion war weithin zu hören. Die Branche zeigt sich in unsicheren Zeiten erstaunlich robust. Ägypten wird seit von einer Militärregierung geführt.

He had served as armed forced chief under Mr Morsi, and was a key figure in the interim government which took over after the ouster. Some Egyptians celebrated the possibility that Mr Sisi would bring stability to a country in upheaval since the removal of long-term leader Hosni Mubarak during the Arab Spring uprising in Others worry that he represents a return to the authoritarian security state that prevailed under Mr Mubarak.

Mr Sisi won a second four-year-term in March against a sole minor opposition candidate. Human rights lawyer Khalid Ali and former prime minister Ahmad Shafiq withdrew from the race, and the former armed forces chief of staff Sami Anan was arrested.

In addition to Egypt's struggling economy, President Sisi also has to deal with an Islamist insurgency on its borders with Israel and Gaza.

Egypt is a major regional media player. Its TV and film industries supply much of the Arab-speaking world with content and its press is influential.

TV is the favourite medium and there are several big hitters in the sector, including the state broadcaster. The authorities have been increasing controls over traditional and social media to an unprecedented degree.

Read full media profile. Successive dynasties witness flourishing trade, prosperity and the development of great cultural traditions. A Macedonian dynasty rules until 31 BC.

Queen Cleopatra commits suicide after Octavian's army defeats her forces. He sets up Egypt in opposition to the conservative Arab monarchies of the Gulf and Western interests in the Middle East.

Hollywood stars are among those fleeing their homes as another fire further north leaves nine dead. Human Rights Watch documented three incidents in in which individuals were killed in alleged shootouts after having been detained.

The government undertook no known investigations into these killings and provided little or no information to the families.

In some cases, the NSA delayed the delivery of the bodies and forced families to bury the dead relatives without funerals.

Since July , Egyptian criminal courts have sentenced over people to death. In , the Cassation Court upheld death sentences of 22 persons at least, who remain on death row, while more death sentences were awaiting final court decisions at time of writing.

Military courts have issued over 60 death sentences of civilians since July and 19 of those sentences were confirmed by the Supreme Military Court of Appeals in raising the number of civilians executed in military courts to President al-Sisi ratified a new law on associations in May that, when implemented, could eliminate the little remaining space for civil society and end the work of decades-old human rights and other independent associations.

The law criminalizes the work of NGOs, providing for up to five-year prison terms for failing to adhere to its provisions such as operating or receiving funds without government approval.

The new law gives organizations until May 23, to comply with its provisions or be dissolved. As of November, the government had not yet published implementing regulations.

As of October, the investigating judge had summoned 61 staff members for interrogation and charged 15 leading rights activists from four organizations.

Authorities banned 27 from traveling outside the country. A criminal court also ordered asset freezes of 10 activists and 7 NGOs. The government placed two independent newspapers, Al-Borsa and Daily News Egypt , and two independent news websites, Misr al-Arabiya and Cairo Portal, on the terrorist entities lists.

The placement led to asset freezes and brought the four outlets under the administration of the government-owned Akhbar al-Youm newspaper, according to Reporters Without Borders RSF.

According to RSF, as of late October, 17 journalists remained in jail. On October 21, journalist Hisham Gaafar had spent more than two years in pretrial detention, the maximum allowed by Egyptian law, on charges of receiving foreign funds for his institution, Mada Media Foundation, and joining a banned group.

Authorities denied him proper medical care for prostate disease. Ismail al-Iskandrani, a journalist who reported on Sinai, will have entered his third year of pretrial detention in December He faces charges of spreading false news and joining a banned group.

In May, the government blocked 21 websites of political groups and news outlets. As of October, the Association for Freedom of Thought and Expression, an independent Egyptian group, said that the number of websites blocked reached more than , including rights groups such as Human Rights Watch and RSF.

President al-Sisi signed parliamentary amendments to the protest law intended to meet a Supreme Constitutional Court ruling, but they did not affect the highly restrictive nature of the law, and peaceful gatherings remain effectively banned and penalized.

Security forces rounded up activists preemptively, ahead of anticipated protests. For example, at the beginning of April, security arrested political activists, mostly in home raids, ahead of the mid-June parliamentary approval of the controversial government decision to cede two Red Sea islands to Saudi Arabia.

Al-Sisi pardoned a total of prisoners in March and June, most of whom had been convicted in cases related to peaceful protests. Extensive military operations encompassed more areas, including al-Arish, the capital of the governorate.

Between January and August , government forces and armed group members were killed in Sinai, according to the Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy, based on military statements that are hard to verify.

The fighting in Sinai has been marred by widespread government abuses including secret detentions, extrajudicial executions, and military trials of civilians.

The Islamic State-affiliate Wilayat Sinai targeted civilians perceived as collaborators and Christians, as well as security forces.

In many cases, attacks against government forces also killed civilians. Seven Christians were murdered in Sinai between January 30 and February 23 in attacks that bore the hallmarks of Islamic State killings, though no group claimed responsibility.

As a result, hundreds of Christian families fled to cities and towns outside Sinai, leaving almost no Christian families there. Since then, the government stepped up security around churches.

Authorities arrested or charged at least workers for peaceful workplace strikes and protests in and , mostly over bonuses and delayed wages.

In September, for example, security forces arrested at least eight Tax Authority workers and independent union leaders prior to anticipated protests.

Independent trade unions remained effectively banned. The parliament approved in December a new trade unions law that will keep in place many restrictions and does not recognize independent unions.

In , the government-controlled Egyptian Trade Union Federation, the only officially-recognized union, begins its 12th year without board elections, and the government continued to appoint its leaders in violation of International Labour Organization conventions that grant the right to organize and freedom of association.

Egypt remained a destination, transit, and source country for refugees and asylum seekers.

As a result, the Italian press and foreign ministry pointed at the systematic human right violations in Egypt, and threatened with political sanctions unless police leadership and practices undergo significant revisions.

Coptic Christians face discrimination at multiple levels of the government, ranging from disproportionate representation in government ministries to laws that limit their ability to build or repair churches.

Clashes continued between police and supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi, at least civilians were killed in Cairo on 14 August , [] the worst mass killing in Egypt's modern history.

Egypt actively practices capital punishment. Egypt's authorities do not release figures on death sentences and executions, despite repeated requests over the years by human rights organisations.

Sentenced supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi will be executed for their alleged role in violence following his ousting in July The judgment was condemned as a violation of international law.

After Morsi was ousted by the military, the judiciary system aligned itself with the new government, actively supporting the repression of Muslim Brotherhood members.

This resulted in a sharp increase in mass death sentences that arose criticism from then-U. In Cairo was voted the most dangerous megacity for women with more than 10 million inhabitants in a poll by Thomson Reuters Foundation.

Sexual harassment was described as occurring on a daily basis. The military is influential in the political and economic life of Egypt and exempts itself from laws that apply to other sectors.

It enjoys considerable power, prestige and independence within the state and has been widely considered part of the Egyptian " deep state ".

The Egyptian military has dozens of factories manufacturing weapons as well as consumer goods. The Armed Forces' inventory includes equipment from different countries around the world.

Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern US, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1 Abrams tank.

Relations with China have also improved considerably. In , Egypt and China established a bilateral "comprehensive strategic partnership".

The permanent headquarters of the Arab League are located in Cairo and the body's secretary general has traditionally been Egyptian.

This position is currently held by former foreign minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit. Gulf monarchies, including the United Arab Emirates [] and Saudi Arabia , [] have pledged billions of dollars to help Egypt overcome its economic difficulties since the July coup.

Following the war and the subsequent peace treaty, Egypt became the first Arab nation to establish diplomatic relations with Israel. Despite that, Israel is still widely considered as a hostile state by the majority of Egyptians.

Tensions with Iran are mostly due to Egypt's peace treaty with Israel and Iran's rivalry with traditional Egyptian allies in the Gulf. It is also a member of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie , since In , Egypt was estimated to have two million African refugees, including over 20, Sudanese nationals registered with UNHCR as refugees fleeing armed conflict or asylum seekers.

Egypt adopted "harsh, sometimes lethal" methods of border control. Egypt is divided into 27 governorates. The governorates are further divided into regions.

The regions contain towns and villages. Each governorate has a capital, sometimes carrying the same name as the governorate.

Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum imports, natural gas, and tourism; there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Libya , Saudi Arabia , the Persian Gulf and Europe.

The completion of the Aswan High Dam in and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honoured place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt.

A rapidly growing population, limited arable land , and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy.

The government has invested in communications and physical infrastructure. Egypt's economy mainly relies on these sources of income: Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas , and hydro power.

Substantial coal deposits in the northeast Sinai are mined at the rate of about , tonnes , long tons ; , short tons per year.

Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez , and the Nile Delta. In , the Egyptian General Petroleum Co EGPC said the country will cut exports of natural gas and tell major industries to slow output this summer to avoid an energy crisis and stave off political unrest, Reuters has reported.

Egypt is counting on top liquid natural gas LNG exporter Qatar to obtain additional gas volumes in summer, while encouraging factories to plan their annual maintenance for those months of peak demand, said EGPC chairman, Tarek El Barkatawy.

Egypt produces its own energy, but has been a net oil importer since and is rapidly becoming a net importer of natural gas. Economic conditions have started to improve considerably, after a period of stagnation, due to the adoption of more liberal economic policies by the government as well as increased revenues from tourism and a booming stock market.

In its annual report, the International Monetary Fund IMF has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms.

Although one of the main obstacles still facing the Egyptian economy is the limited trickle down of wealth to the average population, many Egyptians criticise their government for higher prices of basic goods while their standards of living or purchasing power remains relatively stagnant.

Corruption is often cited by Egyptians as the main impediment to further economic growth. The information technology IT sector has expanded rapidly in the past few years, with many start-ups selling outsourcing services to North America and Europe, operating with companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and other major corporations, as well as many small and medium size enterprises.

The IT sector has been stimulated by new Egyptian entrepreneurs with government encouragement. Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Egypt's economy.

The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's best-known tourist attractions; it is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.

Egypt's beaches on the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, which extend to over 3, kilometres 1, miles , are also popular tourist destinations; the Gulf of Aqaba beaches, Safaga , Sharm el-Sheikh , Hurghada , Luxor , Dahab , Ras Sidr and Marsa Alam are popular sites.

Transport in Egypt is centred around Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile.

The vehicle road network has expanded rapidly to over 21, miles, consisting of 28 line, stations, train covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta, the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai, and the Western oases.

EgyptAir , which is now the country's flag carrier and largest airline, was founded in by Egyptian industrialist Talaat Harb , today owned by the Egyptian government.

The airline is based at Cairo International Airport , its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East , Europe , Africa , Asia , and the Americas.

The Current EgyptAir fleet includes 80 aeroplanes. The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt considered the most important centre of the maritime transport in the Middle East , connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.

Opened in November after 10 years of construction work, it allows ship transport between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa.

Ismailia lies on its west bank, 3 kilometres 1. The canal is It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer.

The current south of the lakes changes with the tide at Suez. On 26 August a proposal was made for opening a New Suez Canal.

Work on the New Suez Canal was completed in July Over that period, Egypt achieved the elimination of open defecation in rural areas and invested in infrastructure.

About one half of the population is connected to sanitary sewers. Partly because of low sanitation coverage about 17, children die each year because of diarrhoea.

This in turn requires government subsidies even for operating costs, a situation that has been aggravated by salary increases without tariff increases after the Arab Spring.

Poor operation of facilities, such as water and wastewater treatment plants, as well as limited government accountability and transparency, are also issues.

Due to the absence of appreciable rainfall, Egypt's agriculture depends entirely on irrigation. The main source of irrigation water is the river Nile of which the flow is controlled by the high dam at Aswan.

In the Nile valley and delta, almost 33, square kilometres 13, sq mi of land benefit from these irrigation waters producing on average 1. Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East, and the third most populous on the African continent , with about 95 million inhabitants as of [update].

Egypt's people are highly urbanised, being concentrated along the Nile notably Cairo and Alexandria , in the Delta and near the Suez Canal.

Egyptians are divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centres and the fellahin , or farmers, that reside in rural villages. While emigration was restricted under Nasser, thousands of Egyptian professionals were dispatched abroad in the context of the Arab Cold War.

There are also tribal Beja communities concentrated in the south-eastern-most corner of the country, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanisation increases.

Some 5 million immigrants live in Egypt, mostly Sudanese , "some of whom have lived in Egypt for generations. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that the total number of "people of concern" refugees, asylum seekers, and stateless people was about , In , the number of registered Syrian refugees in Egypt was ,, a decrease from the previous year.

The once-vibrant and ancient Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared , with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious or other occasions and tourism.

Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are found in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities. The official language of the Republic is Arabic.

Additionally, Greek , Armenian and Italian , and more recently, African languages like Amharic and Tigrigna are the main languages of immigrants.

The main foreign languages taught in schools, by order of popularity, are English , French , German and Italian. Historically Egyptian was spoken, of which the latest stage is Coptic Egyptian.

Spoken Coptic was mostly extinct by the 17th century but may have survived in isolated pockets in Upper Egypt as late as the 19th century.

It remains in use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Egypt is a predominantly Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion.

The percentage of adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt. Egypt was a Christian country before the 7th century, and after Islam arrived, the country was gradually Islamised into a majority-Muslim country.

Egypt emerged as a centre of politics and culture in the Muslim world. Under Anwar Sadat , Islam became the official state religion and Sharia the main source of law.

There is also a Shi'a minority. Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria, such as the Syro-Lebanese , who belong to Greek Catholic , Greek Orthodox , and Maronite Catholic denominations.

Ethnic Greeks also made up a large Greek Orthodox population in the past. Likewise, Armenians made up the then larger Armenian Orthodox and Catholic communities.

Egypt also used to have a large Roman Catholic community, largely made up of Italians and Maltese. These non-native communities were much larger in Egypt before the Nasser regime and the nationalisation that took place.

Egypt hosts the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. It was founded back in the first century, considered to be the largest Church in the Middle East and North Africa.

Egypt is also the home of Al-Azhar University founded in CE, began teaching in CE , which is today the world's "most influential voice of establishment Sunni Islam" and is, by some measures, the second-oldest continuously operating university in world.

Egypt recognises only three religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. A court ruling allowed members of unrecognised faiths to obtain identification and leave the religion field blank.

Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. Contemporary Arabic and Middle-Eastern culture is heavily influenced by Egyptian literature, music, film and television.

Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the s and s, giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arabic-speaking world.

Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam , Christianity and Judaism; and a new language, Arabic , and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words.

The work of early 19th-century scholar Rifa'a al-Tahtawi renewed interest in Egyptian antiquity and exposed Egyptian society to Enlightenment principles.

Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi , who themselves studied the history , language and antiquities of Egypt.

They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to personal freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress.

The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture. Egyptian blue , also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years.

It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment. The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings.

Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids , temples and monumental tombs. Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep , the Sphinx , and the temple of Abu Simbel.

Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene, from the vernacular architecture of Hassan Fathy and Ramses Wissa Wassef , to Mahmoud Mokhtar 's sculptures, to the distinctive Coptic iconography of Isaac Fanous.

The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature.

Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book. Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature , and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Middle East.

Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi , well known for her feminist activism , and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition.

Egyptian media are highly influential throughout the Arab World , attributed to large audiences and increasing freedom from government control.

Egyptian cinema became a regional force with the coming of sound. In , Studio Misr, financed by industrialist Talaat Harb , emerged as the leading Egyptian studio, a role the company retained for three decades.

Actors from all over the Arab World seek to appear in the Egyptian cinema for the sake of fame. The Cairo International Film Festival has been rated as one of 11 festivals with a top class rating worldwide by the International Federation of Film Producers' Associations.

Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements. It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity.

The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music , which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world.

Egyptians used music instruments since then. Egypt has one of the oldest civilisations in the world. It has been in contact with many other civilisations and nations and has been through so many eras, starting from prehistoric age to the modern age, passing through so many ages such as; Pharonic, Roman, Greek, Islamic and many other ages.

Because of this wide variation of ages, the continuous contact with other nations and the big number of conflicts Egypt had been through, at least 60 museums may be found in Egypt, mainly covering a wide area of these ages and conflicts.

The Grand Egyptian Museum GEM , also known as the Giza Museum, is an under construction museum that will house the largest collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts in the world, it has been described as the world's largest archaeological museum.

The Minister of Antiquities Mamdouh al-Damaty announced in May that the museum will be partially opened in May Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid.

They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion.

Ramadan has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights local lanterns known as fawanees and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Ramadan.

The ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim Coptic: Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on legume and vegetable dishes.

Although food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground.

Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed. Some consider kushari a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni to be the national dish.

Fried onions can be also added to kushari. In addition, ful medames mashed fava beans is one of the most popular dishes.

Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya , a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit. Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt.

The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Africa, and the BBC picked it as one of the 7 toughest derbies in the world.

They're known as the " African Club of the Century ". With twenty titles, Al Ahly is currently the world's most successful club in terms of international trophies, surpassing Italy's A.

Milan and Argentina's Boca Juniors , both having eighteen. The Egyptian national football team , known as the Pharaohs, won the African Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in , , and Egypt was 4th place in the football tournament in the and the Olympics.

Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. The Egyptian squash team has been competitive in international championships since the s.

Amr Shabana and Ramy Ashour are Egypt's best players and both were ranked tne world's number one squash player. Egypt has won the Squash World Championships four times, with the last title being in In , the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching fourth place.

Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics.

Egypt has taken part in the Summer Olympic Games since and hosted and Alexandria h the first Mediterranean Games in Egypt has hosted several international competitions.

On Friday 19 September , Guinness World Records announced that Egyptian scuba diver Ahmed Gabr is the new title holder for deepest salt water scuba dive , at The hour feat took Gabr 1, feet metres down into the abyss near the Egyptian town of Dahab in the Red Sea , where he works as a diving instructor.

On 1 September Raneem El Weleily was ranked as the world number one woman squash player. The wired and wireless telecommunication industry in Egypt started in with the launch of the country's first telegram line connecting Cairo and Alexandria.

The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt.

Established in , it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union , initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern.

In September , Egypt ratified the law granting authorities the right to monitor social media users in the country as part of tightening internet controls.

The illiteracy rate has decreased since from A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers.

In the s, President Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians. Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six.

General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma , the leaving exam.

Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five.

Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon.

Egyptian life expectancy at birth was In , there were As a result of modernisation efforts over the years, Egypt's healthcare system has made great strides forward.

Life expectancy increased from According to the World Health Organization in , an estimated In the law was amended to impose tougher penalties on those convicted of performing the procedure, pegging the highest jail term at 15 years.

Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years. The total number of Egyptians with health insurance reached 37 million in , of which 11 million are minors, providing an insurance coverage of approximately 52 percent of Egypt's population.

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Deserts occupy most of the country. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, tourism, and cash remittances from Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries.

However, rapid population growth and the limited amount of arable land are straining the country's resources and economy, and political unrest has often paralysed government efforts to address the problems.

Retired Field Marshal Abdel Fattah al-Sisi was elected president in May , almost a year after he removed his elected predecessor, the Muslim Brotherhood's Mohammed Morsi, from office in a coup.

He had served as armed forced chief under Mr Morsi, and was a key figure in the interim government which took over after the ouster.

Some Egyptians celebrated the possibility that Mr Sisi would bring stability to a country in upheaval since the removal of long-term leader Hosni Mubarak during the Arab Spring uprising in Others worry that he represents a return to the authoritarian security state that prevailed under Mr Mubarak.

Mr Sisi won a second four-year-term in March against a sole minor opposition candidate. Human rights lawyer Khalid Ali and former prime minister Ahmad Shafiq withdrew from the race, and the former armed forces chief of staff Sami Anan was arrested.

In addition to Egypt's struggling economy, President Sisi also has to deal with an Islamist insurgency on its borders with Israel and Gaza.

Egypt is a major regional media player. Its TV and film industries supply much of the Arab-speaking world with content and its press is influential.

TV is the favourite medium and there are several big hitters in the sector, including the state broadcaster. The authorities have been increasing controls over traditional and social media to an unprecedented degree.

Read full media profile.

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